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We measured levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples during pregnancy using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Sex-typical behaviour was assessed at 9 years of age (n = 96) and autistic traits at 10 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; n = 100). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure and outcome variables. testosterone.

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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motoneuron disease due to a CAG triplet-repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, which is translated into an elongated polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in AR protein (ARpolyQ). ARpolyQ toxicity is activated by the AR ligand testosterone (or dihydrotestosterone), and the polyQ triggers ARpolyQ misfolding and aggregation in spinal cord motoneurons and muscle cells. In motoneurons, testosterone triggers nuclear toxicity by inducing AR nuclear translocation. Thus, (i) prevention of ARpolyQ nuclear localization, combined with (ii) an increased ARpolyQ cytoplasmic clearance, should reduce its detrimental activity. Using the antiandrogen Bicalutamide (Casodex(®)), which slows down AR activation and nuclear translocation, and the disaccharide trehalose, an autophagy activator, we found that, in motoneurons, the two compounds together reduced ARpolyQ insoluble forms with higher efficiency than that obtained with single treatments. The ARpolyQ clearance was mediated by trehalose-induced autophagy combined with the longer cytoplasmic retention of ARpolyQ bound to Bicalutamide. This allows an increased recognition of misfolded species by the autophagic system prior to their migration into the nucleus. Interestingly, the combinatory use of trehalose and Bicalutamide was also efficient in the removal of insoluble species of AR with a very long polyQ (Q112) tract, which typically aggregates into the cell nuclei. Collectively, these data suggest that the combinatory use of Bicalutamide and trehalose is a novel approach to facilitate ARpolyQ clearance that has to be tested in other cell types target of SBMA (i.e. muscle cells) and in vivo in animal models of SBMA. testosterone.

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This study compared aggressiveness between two distinct wild populations of Japanese medaka: a Northern population, Oryzias sakaizumii, and a Southern population, O. latipes. When four males competed in intra-population contests, the social hierarchy was determined based on aggressive acts in both populations. Dominants of the Southern population showed higher aggressive acts than did dominants of the Northern population. Increased aggressiveness of Southern males compared with Northern males was also observed when a pair of Northern and Southern males were compared in inter-population contests. High expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in distinct preoptic regions were found in dominants and subordinates of the Southern population, but not in those of the Northern population. In contrast, neither 11-ketotestosterone nor cortisol levels in plasma differed between dominants and subordinates of either population, nor between pairs of the Northern and the Southern males. Taken together, these findings indicate that the two wild populations of medaka represent intriguing models for the study of neuroendocrinological correlates in behavioral traits underlying congeners of medaka fish. testosterone.

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Despite associations between total testosterone (TT) concentrations and increased cardiometabolic risk, the impact of serum androgens on health care utilization and costs among women is unknown. testosterone.

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Whole body fat percentage and plasma leptin were higher (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass, plasma free testosterone and total testosterone were lower (P < 0.05) in A compared to Y. Skeletal muscle OB-Rb (170 KDa) protein expression and pTyr(1141) -OB-R170 were comparable between groups, whereas pTyr(985) -OB-R170 was lower in A compared to Y (P < 0.05). pSTAT3 levels tended (P = 0.09) to be lower (50%) in A compared to Y. In A, muscle PTP1B was greater and IRS-1 lower than Y and MA respectively (P < 0.05). PTyr(612) -IRS-1 tended to be lower in A than in Y (P = 0.09). Suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) protein expression, pJAK2, pSer(1101) -IRS-1, pAMPKα and pACCβ were similar between groups. testosterone.

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